(Many thanks to Frank for
providing this in depth tutorial on manual ranging  Hondo)
The following procedures can
be used to obtain a fairly accurate range on any surface ship. Its use
may not give immediate accuracy at long ranges, but experience will
refine the process and work well. It is the same method used during WW1,
2 and every time between and after to gain a nondetectable passive
range to a contact from a submarine.
First establish how much of
the contact is actually visible. This is very important since the Mast
head heights established were gained from Full View at periscope depth,
IE: waterline to top from 1000 yards. This was done to obtain the most
accurate mast head height.
Realize that the farther away a contact is the less you will see of its
full view so this will have a great effect on your ability to get an
accurate range. Situations of “Hull Down” will present themselves
and you just have to look at the silhouettes in ONI208J and do
calculations of how much of the ship you see and go from there. Do not
adjust the mast head height number for the contact because of this, just
if you only see from his superstructureup and it’s only .1 div in
high power(4X) then that’s what you use. Additionally, the computer
graphics throw a serious curve by making the mast disappear at different
times. This usually goes away inside of 2500 yards, but adds to the
difficulty.
Second, There are only two
powers you can take observations with. 1X and 4X. Looking through the
Scope and only the scope, decide how many divisions the target takes up.
The divisions are divided into three small ticks capped by large ones
IE: IiiiIiiiIiiiIiiiI. Disregard the dots on the I’s and that’s what
you see. For ranging, Use the VERTICAL set of Tic’s only.
The
divisions are divided by 1, IE: 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5,1.6,1.7,1.8,1.9. The
tics on your boat however line up on .25, .5, and .75. It’s allok,
just establish how YOU read it, calibrate yourself, and go to war.
Finally, once you figure how many divisions, use the following method to
establish range:
For HIGH power (4X) multiply Masthead height by 80 then
divide the answer by the divisions. IE: 100ft MHH—100x80=8000 8000
divided by 1.5 divisions = 5333 yards.
For LOW power use 20 vice 80. I use a calculator (it is my electronic
weapons officer—he goes along with the games electronic diving
officer!)
HOW TO
FIND A TARGET'S COURSE
The first thing to do is get
the compass planted in your head. The game makes this easier because north on the chart is always on top.
I assume you understand that all bearings on the periscope or TBT are
relative. The targets course is true, your course is true. Converting
Relative bearings to true is a slight pain, so try to deal with True if
possible. So what you do is this; Lets say you are on course 045dT
(T=True, d=degrees) a contact bears 000dR (R=Relative) and has a
Starboard (you see the starboard (right) side of his hull) 90d AOB)
(Angle on the Bow) take the reciprocal of 045dT=225dT and for a STBD AOB
you subtract the AOB from that reciprocal bearing, which would give you
135dT for target course. That one is easy, now say you are on course
270T, a contact bears 045R with a Port 25d AOB. You take the reciprocal
of the TRUE bearing which is 315dT you subtract 180 to get the
reciprocal=135 then for Port AOB's you ADD the AOB to the reciprocal=
135+25=160. 160dT is the targets course!
HOW TO FIND A
GOOD LAUNCH POINT
Speed X 100 = distance
traveled in three minutes. If you are doing 5 knots, in three minutes
you will have traveled 500 yards. A 30knot torpedo will travel 1000
yards in one minute and so on. This can help you put your boat in a good
spot with a pair of dividers and the chart using the waypoint lines to
"mark" the spots. It would be a lot easier if I showed you
with an actual game. I used this formula and method a lot in the Yellow
Sea with electric torpedo's and a calm sea. I would figure out the
impact point, launch point and fire my fish. By the time They hit, I was
out of sonar range by 12 thousand yards and reloading my tubes! Another
formula is distance to track. Track is the "path/Track " the
target is on, like a road. If you know the sine table it is another
quick way to put you in the right spot to launch your fish. Distance to
track= range X sine of the AOB. Example: say a target is 4000yds away,
his AOB is a port 25 take the sine of 25=.5 and multiply 4000x.5 and you
get 2000. What that means is at that moment and only that moment you are 2000 yds away from his track regardless of what direction
you are going. The game does a pretty decent job with AOB simulation, but
can be deceiving! I do assure you that having been on submarines,
looking out that scope at dawn and dusk, shadows can cause confusion!
SINES,
SOLUTIONS, ADJUSTMENTS and TORPEDO SPREADS
The simplified sine
table.
The first numbers are the AOB (angle on the bow), the ones with the
decimal point are the simplified sine #'s. Here you go: 2535=.5,
3646=.6, 4757=.7, 5868=.86979=.9, all angles greater use 1 . One
thing I did to practice AOB and target course was I created a scenario
that I practiced with. One of the Guess work I have when refining my
solution is target speed. I don't go to the chart to add realism, but my
methods must work because I rarely miss. One of the biggest things that
will tell you how good your solution is, after you give all the inputs
and generate your solution with the red light, watch how closely the
TDC's bearing and actual bearing track. Remember a few things, the
closer a target is, the faster the bearing will change, if you have a
really good range and your bearing and the TDC's bearing do not match,
then you adjust the speed you put in the TDC. The Game does a pretty
good job on Bow wake, The slower the target is, the less water that gets
kicked up at the bow, the faster, more. Also, remember that speed X 100
= distance traveled in three minutes. So distance traveled in three
minutes divided by 100 = speed! The formula works in three combinations!
Now, one final lesson. There are two ways I use to put in a spread in a
multiple salvo situation. First, the only reason to put in a spread is
to compensate for any errors in your solution. Also bad torpedoes! But
more for solution error. The one method is to use the TDC feature and
offset the fish. The other That I use a lot in rush situations is to
spread the fish by constant periscope bearings. I watch the target and
Line up the cross hairs on the forward mast, hit the spacebar which
gives a new bearing input to the TDC, click the red G light and shoot.
Then I pick other spots along the targets hull and repeat the procedure
of bearing, G light. The bigger the target, the more torpedo's, the more
I spread the fish along its hull. It takes a lot of practice to get all
this "Mental Gym" down, but with practice you can get it. I
hated it at first, but now really dig it!
IJN MAST
HEIGHTS
It took two days and
countless hours to “extract” these from the game. There may be some
inaccuracies, but none intentional. The little they may be off, is a
splash of realism, because The US Navy had data on ships, but not all,
and not all was 100% on the nose either! All numbers are in feet.
BATTLESHIPS 

CRUISERS 
Fuso 
165 

Furutaka 
94 
Yamamoto 
155 

Myoka 
115 
Nagato 
150 

Mogami 
100 
Kongo 
150 

Takao

115 
Ise 
145 

Tone 
95 
CARRIERS 

Kuma 
130 
Kaga 
125 

Nagara 
130 
Ryujo 
95 

Aoba 
85 
Zuiho 
105 

Chitose 
100 
Shokaku 
135 

DESTROYERS 
Taiho 
130 

Naka 
130 
Unryu 
125 

Shiratsuyu 
95 
Akagi 
130 

Yubari 
90 
Soryu 
120 

Hatsuharu 
90 
Ryuho 
110 

Asashio 
90 
Hiyo 
125 

Agano 
90 
Shinano 
130 

Kagero 
90 
MERCHANTS 

Fubuki 
85 
Stand.
Merch. 
120 

Mutsuki 
75 
Oil Tanker 
100 

Akazuki 
75 
Lg
Freighter 
90 

Matsu 
70 
Troop
Transports 
85 

Tachibana 
70 
Conv. Fact.
Ship 
80 

Yugumo 
70 
Armed Merch 
75 

SUBMARINES 
Coastal
Tanker 
70 

Kaidai 
45 
Supply
Ship 
65 

Type A 
45 
Sml
Freighter 
50 

Type B 
45 
PATROL CRAFT 

Type C 
45 
Type C 
50 



Type D 
50 








